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IX BR601 History â Born into conflict as few aircraft are, the sixth Mk. 284 were converted from older versions, 557 built by Supermarine around Southampton, and another 5117 at Castle Bromwich. The ellipse was simply the shape that allowed us the thinnest possible wing with room inside to carry the necessary structure and the things we wanted to cram in. Combat reports showed that an average of 4,500 rounds were needed to shoot down an enemy aircraft. The resultant narrow undercarriage track was considered an acceptable compromise as this reduced the bending loads on the main-spar during landing. Home What's New Features & Reviews Model Kit Top Gun Subject & Color Refs Search About Us. " Although not as fast as the Spitfire, the Zero could out-turn the Spitfire with ease, could sustain a climb at a very steep angle, and could stay in the air for three times as long.  At the time, with France as an ally, and Germany thought to be the most likely future opponent, no enemy fighters were expected to appear over Great Britain. Supermarine was a small company, already busy building Walrus and Stranraer flying boats, and Vickers was busy building Wellington bombers.  With these aircraft, 80 Squadron continued its patrol and reconnaissance duties from Wunstorf in Germany as part of the occupation forces, until it relocated to Kai Tak Airport, Hong Kong in July 1949. [nb 3] This eight-minute flight came four months after the maiden flight of the contemporary Hurricane. , The operational history of the Spitfire with the RAF began with the first Mk Is K9789, which entered service with 19 Squadron at RAF Duxford on 4 August 1938.  To counter the Zero, Spitfire pilots had to adopt a "slash and run" policy and use their faster speed and diving superiority to fight, while avoiding classic dogfights. Although this is often perceived as Summers implying the Spitfire was flawless, this is not the case.  The drawing office in which all Spitfire designs were drafted was relocated to Hursley Park, near Southampton. It had been maintained in running condition by ground crews at Binbrook, and after a short time was participating in the trials. This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 20:54. The streamlined, semi-monocoque, duralumin-skinned fuselage featured a number of compound, vertical curves built up from a skeleton of 19 formers, also known as frames, starting from frame number one, immediately behind the propeller unit, to the tail unit attachment frame.  Like the Spitfire, the Seafire also had a relatively narrow undercarriage track, which meant that it was not ideally suited to deck operations. A Second World War vintage Supermarine Spitfire Mk.IX (L.F.), rebuilt by Canada's National Aviation Museum. , As a result of the delays in getting the Spitfire into full production, the Air Ministry put forward a plan that its production be stopped after the initial order for 310, after which Supermarine would build Bristol Beaufighters. The Spitfire was built in many variants, using several wing configurations, and was produced â¦ After hostilities ceased in Asia in 1945, a number of Spitfire Mk.XIVs were reportedly buried, after being greased, tarred and prepared for long-term storage, in crates in Burma. Normal armament was two 20mm cannon and four machine-guns. These advances had been introduced on civil airliners years before, but were slow to be adopted by the military, who favoured the biplane's simplicity and manoeuvrability. ", http://www.adf-serials.com.au/spitfire.htm, "Supermarine Spitfire Mk.I K9942/8383M Museum Accession NO.72/A/263", "Restored World War Two Spitfire sold for Â£3.1m â BBC News", "Search for 'buried Spitfires' in Burma called off", "Remember the guy who thought he found 140 lost Spitfires, buried underground? This was a strengthened double frame which also incorporated the fireproof bulkhead, and in later versions of the Spitfire, the oil tank. The Spitfire LF Mk IX is very much a short range, point interceptor fighter and the stand out fighter in the mid Spitfire line-up. "Supermarine Spitfire (Merlin-engined variants)". Although resolving the problems took time, in June 1940, 10 Mk IIs were built; 23 rolled out in July, 37 in August, and 56 in September. The original aircraft was purchased by the people of the Lytham St Annes in 1940. During the battle, Spitfires were generally tasked with engaging Luftwaffe fighters—mainly Messerschmitt Bf 109E-series aircraft, which were a close match for them. 1230 (50), Prototypes - Mk I - Mk II - Mk III - Mk V - Mk VI - Mk VII - Mk VIII - Mk IX - Mk XII - Mk XIV - Mk XVI - Mk XVIII - Mk 21 to 24 - Photo Reconnaissance Spitfires - Spitfire Wings - Timeline, Help - F.A.Q. The first four frames supported the glycol header tank and engine cowlings. In spite of promises that the factory would be producing 60 per week starting in April, by May 1940 Castle Bromwich had not yet built its first Spitfire. 614â616. But I have to admit that the later marks, although they were faster than the earlier ones, were also much heavier and so did not handle so well. Flaps were normally lowered only during the final approach and for landing, and the pilot was to retract them before taxiing. The longer noses and greater propeller-wash resulting from larger engines in later models necessitated increasingly larger vertical, and later, horizontal tail surfaces to compensate for the altered aerodynamics, culminating in those of the Mk 22/24 series, which were 25% larger in area than those of the Mk I. Evaluation of the recorded flight data suggested he achieved a speed of 690 mph (1,110 km/h), (Mach 0.96) in the dive, which would have been the highest speed ever reached by a propeller-driven aircraft if the instruments had been considered more reliable.  This caused the wing roots to stall before the tips, reducing tip-stall that could otherwise have resulted in a wing drop, often leading to a spin.  This washout was first featured in the wing of the Type 224, and became a consistent feature in subsequent designs leading to the Spitfire. These range in scale from 60% scale to full-size, and most use wooden construction rather than the original all-metal monocoque design. A total of 143 aircraft and 50 furnished hulls (to be used for spare parts) followed by March of the same year. , A wing feature that contributed greatly to its success was an innovative spar boom design, made up of five square tubes that fitted into each other. British company Historic Flying Limited has either restored or built from scratch a significant proportion of the Spitfires that are now airworthy. Both the elevators and rudder were shaped so that their centre of mass was shifted forward, reducing control-surface flutter. , Two MK 1 Supermarine Spitfires, originally restored by the Aircraft Restoration Company, remain in flying condition at the Imperial War Museum Duxford, in Cambridgeshire, England. Supermarine Spitfire Jeff Ethellâs Pireps. RAF fighter pilots soon learned to "half-roll" their aircraft before diving to pursue their opponents. During the Battle of Britain, the Luftwaffe made concerted efforts to destroy the main manufacturing plants at Woolston and Itchen, near Southampton. The production test was usually quite a brisk affair; the initial circuit lasted less than ten minutes and the main flight took between twenty and thirty minutes. "Spitfire con Coccarde Italiane (Spitfire in Italian service)."  The Isaacs Spitfire (1975) and the Time Warp Spitfire Mk V (1996) are homebuilt 60% scale replicas, and Bob DeFord of Prescott, Arizona built and flies a 100% scale replica.. He is a German Luftwaffe ace with 81 confirmed victories on the Eastern front. ", Jane, Fred T. "The Supermarine Spitfire. Pilots who forgot to raise the flaps after landing often found themselves paying a fine.  Currently several of the trainers are known to exist, including both the T Mk VIII, a T Mk IX based in the US, and the "Grace Spitfire" ML407, a veteran flown operationally by 485(NZ) Squadron in 1944. This aircraft was the 155th built and first flew in April 1939.  A production aircraft cost about Â£9,500. Spitfire Mk 24s were used by only one regular RAF unit, with 80 Squadron replacing their Hawker Tempests with F Mk 24s in 1947. Then the aircraft received a final once-over by our ground mechanics, any faults were rectified and the Spitfire was ready for collection. That Southeast Asia was a lower-priority area also did not help, and it was allocated few Spitfires and other modern fighters compared to Europe, which allowed the Japanese to easily achieve air superiority by 1942. Both were shot down and became prisoners of war, while flying Spitfires over France in 1941 and 1942. This meant a Luftwaffe fighter could simply "bunt" into a high-power dive to escape an attack, leaving the Spitfire behind, as its fuel was forced out of the carburettor by negative "g".  Different wings, featuring a variety of weapons, were fitted to most marks; the A wing used eight .303 in (7.7 mm) machine guns, the B wing had four .303 in (7.7 mm) machine guns and two 20 mm (.79 in) Hispano cannon, and the C, or universal, wing could mount either four 20 mm (.79 in) cannon or two 20 mm (.79 in) and four .303 in (7.7 mm) machine guns. Also included are colorful, easy to read detailed instructions. , What may be the most originally restored Spitfire in the world is maintained at Fantasy of Flight in Polk City, Florida. Morgan and Shacklady 2000, pp. IXs, although the intended âcâ type was four cannon and no machine guâ¦ This wing was tested on a modified F Mk 21, also called the F Mk 23, (sometimes referred to as "Valiant" rather than "Spitfire"). Mitchell pushed the Spitfire's distinctive elliptical wing with cutting-edge sunken rivets (designed by Beverley Shenstone) to have the thinnest possible cross-section, helping give the aircraft a higher top speed than several contemporary fighters, including the Hawker Hurricane. [nb 7] Quill devised the standard testing procedures, which with variations for specific aircraft designs operated from 1938. The first deliveries of the Spitfire Mk VB variant took place at the start of 1943, with the first batch of 35 aircraft delivered via sea to the city of Basra, Iraq. Beginning in late 1943, high-speed diving trials were undertaken at Farnborough to investigate the handling characteristics of aircraft travelling at speeds near the sound barrier (i.e., the onset of compressibility effects). "Supermarine unveils its high-performance monoplane today (5 March). The Spitfire's stressed-skin construction required precision engineering skills and techniques that were beyond the capabilities of the local labour force, and some time was required to retrain them.  The only unofficial two-seat conversions that were fitted with dual-controls were a few Russian lend/lease Mk IX aircraft.  However, contemporary Allied carrier fighters such as the F6F Hellcat and F4U Corsair were considerably more robust and so more practical for carrier operations. As Jeffrey Quill noted: "If Mitchell was born to design the Spitfire, Joe Smith was born to defend and develop it. As the wing roots started to stall, the separating air stream started to buffet (vibrate) the aircraft, warning the pilot, allowing even relatively inexperienced pilots to fly it to the limits of its performance.  He had been given orders to fly the aircraft and then to make his report to the Air Ministry on landing. While this prevented overheating of the cordite used in British ammunition, it allowed cold air to flow through the barrel unhindered. âI would like to pay tribute to one of the most fabulous fighter aircrafts of the World War II and the designer of Spitfire: Sir Reginald Mitchell.â â Jean-Pierre Cousinet âI dedicate this to the fabulous Spitfire pilot Sir Ray Hanna who had so warmly received this Spitfire MK IX B MH 434 at The Old Flying Machine Company.â ", Lednicer, David A. Vickers Aviation could not keep up with demand and most of Britainâs manufacturers began building Spitfires. That any operational aircraft off the production line, cannons sprouting from its wings and warts and all, could readily be controlled at this speed when the early jet aircraft such as, Articles and topics related to the Supermarine Spitfire, Manufacturing at Castle Bromwich, Birmingham, Search for reported surviving Spitfires in Burma. When the Mk VIII appeared later in 1942, its performance was very similar to that of the Mk IX. Another PR Mk 19, PS853, which is now owned by Rolls-Royce, was on gate-guard duties at Binbrook, having been retired from the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight (BBMF) one year before. It features an exceptional rate of climb, whilst still retaining the manoeuvrability of its early lineage. The Mk VIII was produced in large numbers, and saw service in the Middle East and Far East. 72 Squadron RAF until June 1940, when it was damaged in a wheels-up landing. Their Supermarine Aircraft Spitfire is supplied in kit form and is the only all-aluminium reproduction Spitfire in production. The first pilot to fly. IXB ser. The cabin pressure fell below a safe level, and in trying to reduce altitude, he entered an uncontrollable dive which shook the aircraft violently. Supermarine Spitfire HF Mk IX / T Mk IX (SM520) [@ RAF Duxford] Built by Vickers Armstrong, Castle Bromwich, in 1944 as one of 103 Spitfire Mk IXs constructed to Government contract âB981687/39â. "[nb 8], The wing section used was from the NACA 2200 series, which had been adapted to create a thickness-to-chord ratio of 13% at the root, reducing to 9.4% at the tip. Air combat was also felt to take place at relatively low speeds and high-speed manoeuvring would be physically impossible.  The wing tips used spruce formers for most of the internal structure with a light alloy skin attached using brass screws. The last Lend-Lease shipment carrying the Mk IX arrived at the port of Severodvinsk on 12 June 1945. Three marks of Spitfire would be developed from this experimental aircraft. Before being attached to the main fuselage, the tail unit frames were held in a jig and the eight horizontal tail formers were riveted to them. Constant problems with the evaporative system in the Goshawk led to the adoption of a cooling system which used 100% glycol. In April 1944, the same aircraft suffered engine failure in another dive while being flown by Squadron Leader Anthony F. Martindale, Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, when the propeller and reduction gear broke off. The Mk.IX entered service in late 1942. The 224 was an open-cockpit monoplane with bulky gull-wings and a large, fixed, spatted undercarriage powered by the 600-horsepower (450 kW), evaporatively cooled Rolls-Royce Goshawk engine. Owner Kermit Weeks insisted that the aircraft be restored as closely as possible to its original condition. Normal armament was two 20mm cannon and four machine-guns. The airflow through the main radiator was controlled by pneumatic exit flaps. The Hispanos were found to be so unreliable that the squadron requested an exchange of its aircraft with the older Browning-armed aircraft of an operational training unit.  The other wing-tip variation, used by several Spitfire variants, was the "clipped" wing; the standard wing tips were replaced by wooden fairings which reduced the span by 3 ft 6 in (1.07 m). To carry out the mission of home defence, the design was intended to allow the Spitfire to climb quickly to intercept enemy bombers. , In the Mediterranean, the Spitfire blunted the heavy attacks on Malta by the Regia Aeronautica and Luftwaffe, and from early 1943, helped pave the way for the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy. And it looked nice. The pilot standing in front of the aircraft is pre-War Olympic hurdler, Sqn. II went into service in late 1940. A fibreglass replica in the colours of a Polish squadron leader based at the station during the Second World War is on display at, A replica Spitfire is on display on the Thornaby Road roundabout near the school named after Sir Douglas Bader who flew a Spitfire in the Second World War. The RAF had its answer to the Fw 190 problem. It used the same Merlin 60/70 series engines at the Mk VIII, but in a slightly modified Mark Vc fuselage. These laminar-flow airfoils were the Supermarine 371-I used at the root and the 371-II used at the tip. , The Seafire II was able to outperform the A6M5 Zero at low altitudes when the two types were tested against each other during wartime mock combat exercises. Williams and Gustin 2003, pp. , The decision on the arming of the Spitfire (and the Hurricane) is told in Captain C. H. Keith's book I Hold my Aim. The two orders covered the K, L, and N prefix serial numbers. "Technical Note: A CFD Evaluation of Three Prominent World War II Fighter Aircraft. The Air Ministry submitted a list of possible names to Vickers-Armstrong for the new aircraft, then known as the Type 300. The Spitfire Mk IX was originally developed as a stopgap measure as a response to the appearance of the Focke-Wulf FW 190A. The Mk IX was the most highly-produced and iconic version of the Spitfire, powered by a 1720hp Merlin 66 engine, featuring a 2-stage supercharger, an elliptical wing design and a powerful weapons armament, the Spitfire remains one of the most beautiful & iconic aircraft of all time. From February 1943 flush riveting was used on the fuselage, affecting all Spitfire variants. , In 1938, construction began on the Castle Bromwich Aircraft Factory (CBAF), next to the aerodrome, and the installation of the most modern machine tools then available began two months after work started on the site. 131.".  Some notable Commonwealth pilots were George Beurling (311⁄3 e/a) from Canada, "Sailor" Malan (27 e/a) from South Africa, New Zealanders Alan Deere (17 e/a) and C F Gray (27 e/a) and the Australian Hugo Armstrong (12 e/a).. (in Italian), Gunston, Bill et al. , Early in its development, the Merlin engine's lack of fuel injection meant that Spitfires and Hurricanes, unlike the Bf 109E, were unable to simply nose down into a steep dive. The crisis was so serious that the RAF was forced to stop all but the most important daytime operations over occupied Europe in November 1941. IX in Detail Wing & Undercarriage details. He says "I think it can be reasonably contended that the deliberations of that conference made possible, if not certain, of the winning of the Battle of Britain, almost exactly six years later". IX was only âas goodâ as the Fw 190, so it was a parity that saw fully half of the first hundred Spitfire IXâs listed as âfailed to returnâ, and thirty percent more written off from âcombat related damageâ upon return.  On 17 May, Minister of Aircraft Production Lord Beaverbrook telephoned Lord Nuffield and manoeuvred him into handing over control of the Castle Bromwich plant to his ministry. Nevertheless, 30 more cannon-armed Spitfires were ordered for operational trials, and they were soon known as the Mk IB, to distinguish them from the Browning-armed Mk IA; they were delivered to No.  In April 1935, the armament was changed from two .303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine guns in each wing to four .303 in (7.7 mm) Brownings, following a recommendation by Squadron Leader Ralph Sorley of the Operational Requirements section at the Air Ministry. A total of 1,185 aircraft of this model were delivered through Iran, Iraq and the Arctic to northern Soviet ports. , The Type 224 was a big disappointment to Mitchell and his design team, who immediately embarked on a series of "cleaned-up" designs, using their experience with the Schneider Trophy seaplanes as a starting point. no. [nb 10] Designers and pilots felt that having ailerons which required a degree of effort to move at high speed would avoid unintended aileron reversal, throwing the aircraft around and potentially pulling the wings off. The symbol of Britain's refusal to give up during that dark summer of 1940, the Spitfire won the hearts of both pilots and public in World War II. A típust a II. Frame five, to which the engine bearers were secured, supported the weight of the engine and its accessories. Flight tests showed the fabric covering of the ailerons "ballooned" at high speeds, adversely affecting the aerodynamics. [nb 15], The oldest surviving Spitfire is a Mark 1, serial number K9942; it is preserved at the Royal Air Force Museum Cosford in Shropshire. Price 1996, pp.  In 2016 it was reported that the hunt was continuing.. At the end of the trials, RAF pilots found that Firestreak infra-red guided missiles had trouble acquiring the Spitfire due to a low exhaust temperature, and decided that the twin ADEN 30 mm (1.2 in) cannons were the only weapons suited to the task, which was complicated by the tight turning circle of the Spitfire, and the Lightning's proclivity for over-running the Spitfire. The aircraft fetched a record Â£3.1 million at auction on 9 July, beating the previous record for a Spitfire of Â£1.7 million set in 2009.. During the Battle of Britain, from July to October 1940, the public perceived the Spitfire to be the main RAF fighter, though the more numerous Hurricane shouldered a greater proportion of the burden against Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe. After the Battle of Britain, the Spitfire superseded the Hurricane to become the backbone of RAF Fighter Command, and saw action in the European, Mediterranean, Pacific, and South-East Asian theatres.  The first airframe (PM631) developed mechanical issues which removed it from the trial.  Supermarine did not fix the problem until October 1938, when they added hot air ducts from the rear of the wing-mounted radiators to the guns, and bulkheads around the gunbays to trap the hot air in the wing. The Mk IX (and very similar Mk XVI) was produced in greater numbers than any other type of Spitfire. Douglas Bader (20 e/a) and "Bob" Tuck (27 e/a) flew Spitfires and Hurricanes during the major air battles of 1940. , All production aircraft were flight tested before delivery. "The Birth of a Thoroughbred.". 284 were converted from older versions, 557 built by Supermarine around Southampton, and another 5117 at Castle Bromwich. Finally, 410 high altitude HF.Mk IXs were produced using the Merlin 70 engine, with an improved performance at high altitude. Aircraft performance and design (pdf file) pp. In November 1934 Mitchell, with the backing of Supermarine's owner Vickers-Armstrong, started detailed design work on this refined version of the Type 300. During the Second World War, Jeffrey Quill was Vickers Supermarine's chief test pilot, in charge of flight testing all aircraft types built by Vickers Supermarine. Its service ceiling rose from 36,200 feet to 43,000 feet. Mitchell continued to refine the design until his death in 1937, whereupon his colleague Joseph Smith took over as chief designer, overseeing the Spitfire's development throughout its multitude of variants.  Over the Northern Territory of Australia, Royal Australian Air Force and RAF Spitfires assigned to No. Completed Spitfires were delivered to the airfields on large Commer "Queen Mary" low-loader articulated lorries (trucks), there to be fully assembled, tested, then passed on to the RAF. They soon discovered that the Spitfire[nb 4] was a very good aircraft, but not perfect. n by Martin Waligorski n photos by Martin Waligorski, Mattias Linde and Phillip Treweek: Back to main article : The wing root fillet with solid leading edge visible here was not common for all Mk. The elliptical wing was decided upon quite early on.  Only two positions were available; fully up or fully down (85Â°). Progress was rapid, and full production began in June 1942. Personally, I never cleared a Spitfire unless I had carried out a few aerobatic tests to determine how good or bad she was.  At first, the ailerons, elevators, and rudder were fabric-covered, but combat experience showed that fabric-covered ailerons were impossible to use at high speeds, a light alloy replaced the fabric, enhancing control throughout the speed range. The 1942 Supermarine Spitfire MK IX is a British fighter aircraft that was manufactured by Supermarine between 1942-1945.  A week later, on 3 June 1936, the Air Ministry placed an order for 310 Spitfires, before the A&AEE had issued any formal report. By October, 1939, the Air Ministry had ordered over 4,000 of these aeroplanes. Supermarine Spitfire IX: Fourth major production fighter variant (Supermarine Type 361), combining Mk VC airframe with two-stage two-speed Merlin 60 series engine but lacking other improvements designed for (later) Supermarine Spitfire VIII. During the Chinese Civil War, 80 Squadron's main duty was to defend Hong Kong from perceived Communist threats.  The last operational sortie of an RAF Spitfire was flown on 1 April 1954, by PS888 a PR Mk 19 Spitfire of 81 Squadron.It was flying from RAF Seletar, in Singapore to photograph an area of jungle in Johore, Malaysia, thought to contain Communist guerrillas. This design was submitted to the Air Ministry in July 1934, but was not accepted. An elliptical planform is the most efficient aerodynamic shape for an untwisted wing, leading to the lowest amount of induced drag. It was then joined by a version powered by the Merlin 66. In early marks of the Spitfire (Mk I to Mk VI), the single flap was operated manually using a lever to the left of the pilot's seat. This was the most numerous version of the Mk IX, with 4,010 produced. Greenwood Military Aviation Museum is also home to a replica non-flying Spitfire.  Pat Woodward, who was an RAF pilot operating from Burma at the end of the war, reported that no such burying took place. The Cobi Supermarine Spitfire MK IX Set features 280 highly detailed brick parts including 1 mini figure. Hill's assistant in making his calculations had been his teenage daughter. The Spitfire continues to be highly popular at airshows, on airfields and in museums worldwide, and holds an important place in the memories of many people, especially the few still living who flew the Spitfire in combat.  If one cannon seized, the recoil of the other threw the aircraft off aim. He co-ordinated a team of 25 pilots and assessed all Spitfire developments. , On 5 March 1936,[nb 2] the prototype (K5054), fitted with a fine-pitch propeller to give more power for takeoff, took off on its first flight from Eastleigh Aerodrome (later Southampton Airport) At the controls was Captain Joseph "Mutt" Summers, chief test pilot for Vickers, who is quoted as saying "Don't touch anything" on landing.  Early Seafire marks had relatively few modifications to the standard Spitfire airframe; however cumulative front line experience meant that most of the later versions of the Seafire had strengthened airframes, folding wings, arrestor hooks and other modifications, culminating in the purpose-built Seafire F/FR Mk 47. While it did not cure the problem of the initial fuel starvation in a dive, it did reduce the more serious problem of the carburettor being flooded with fuel by the fuel pumps under negative "g". In 1931 the Air Ministry released specification F7/30, calling for a modern fighter capable of a flying speed of 250 mph (400 km/h).
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