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2014). Although maize-production gains have been attributed to the program since its establishment in 2005, hunger and child malnutrition remain major problems nationally, and poor farm households do not benefit as much as better-off households (Jayne et al. Search for other works by this author on: Collectives address gender inequities in India's agricultural sector. Introduction. Kanyama-Phiri GY, Steffen W Introduction. Table 1: Examples of variables used to construct RIMAâs resilience index 8 Table 2: Resilience-related questions administered through the national survey12 Table 3: Spearman correlations between key measures of subjective resilience 23 Table 4: Results of principal components analysis 24 climate change, rapid urbanization, population ageing), unexpected shocks (e.g. de Valpine P In addition, they do not address underlying drivers of these vulnerabilities—such as inequity, environmental degradation, the concentration of global distribution networks, and the homogenization of energy-dense diets—that could further destabilize and degrade food systems (figure 4). Lupafya E SFHC initiated a new Malawi Farmer to Farmer Agroecology project in partnership with university researchers to scale out to northern and central Malawi with 6000 households using these same approaches. Greater emphasis on food system resilience could reduce these vulnerabilities. Scheffer M SMASAN's strategies to strengthen rural–urban links focus on delivering high quality food to the urban poor through farmers markets, subsidized food vendors, a school meal program, and a food bank. Brauman KA Box 2 presents a case study from India as an example of how improving women's access to land and resources has improved multiple aspects of food access and human health. Dakishoni L However, missing any one of these wedges at any given scale could undermine resilience and have a ricochet effect across scales (figure 4). Transformation wedges include investments in integrated solutions adapted to the local and regional social–ecological contexts of production, distribution, and consumption—coupled with local efforts to increase access to resources by addressing systemic inequities—that could have cross-scale outcomes that vastly improve equitable and sustainable food system resilience globally. Restoring perennials to agricultural landscapes, either in crop rotations or in field borders, could confer resilience and substantially improve numerous ecosystem functions (Smith TE et al. For example, the School Meal Program is sourced 30% from family farmers (FAO 2014), and mobile food outlets are mandated to sell in low-income areas on the weekends at approximately 20% to 50% below market price in exchange for the opportunity to sell food in more profitable locations during the week (Rocha and Lessa 2009). G. MacDonald was supported through the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. However, farmers and academic researchers identified issues related to gender and other social inequities, child feeding practices, and HIV/AIDS that serve as barriers to broader improvements in family health and income. Although globalization has played a role in regional food availability, it may also contribute to less healthy diets and overconsumption in some regions. SMASAN also supports urban agriculture programs to supplement local fruit and vegetable supplies. 2007). Because of women's large role globally in food production and household nutrition activities, strategies that address gender inequities are likely to increase both food security and food system resilience, including the ability of communities and households to adapt to change. Maxwell BD credibly measure resilience, decision makers will not be able to make informed choices about which resilience interventions are most effective . Simplified systems with low genetic and taxonomic diversity are also vulnerable to pest and disease outbreaks as evidenced by the rapid rise of herbicide resistant crops over the past 40 years due to singular reliance on herbicides in pest management (Mortensen et al. Then youâve come to the right blog. Carlson KM An example is UNDPâs Community Based Resilience Analysis (CoBRA): CoBRA uses a Household Economy Approach (HEA) to serve as a meta-indicator; a survival threshold represents the total income required to cover the costs of food, food preparation and water, and a livelihoods protection 2015). to resilience in food systems. Urban Food Systems. Imagine how little farmland would be lost if productive farms were exempt from property tax, if there was a statewide farmersâ retirement fund, and if farming was recognized in statute and in land use planning as the highest and best use of fertile land for the greater public good. 2010). Finally, we highlight regional case studies that have enhanced food system resilience for vulnerable populations. Despite positive correlations between urbanization and global individual income growth, urban centers tend to have similar or higher rates of poverty, income inequality, and food insecurity as rural areas (Satterthwaite et al. 2014) by sourcing food from multiple scales of distribution and diverse markets and supporting polycentric loci of decisionmaking. Resilience is the cross-cutting theme of the Food Security topic at the upcoming EU DevDays, which take place in Brussels on the 16th and 17th of October. Ryan MR Over the past 50 years, global agricultural production increased by 47%, supported by 5.6-fold and 2.5-fold increases in nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer inputs and contributing to over 400 marine hypoxic zones worldwide (Diaz and Rosenberg 2008, Foley et al. 2012). Msachi R Such a strategy could enhance the food self-sufficiency of a given region by closing yield gaps (West et al. Centre for Research on the â¦ Richardson K Simplified production systems can be more vulnerable to climate variability because of dependence on the success of one or two crops (Schlenker and Lobell 2010). It is primarily addressed to food security and resilience practitioners in Central America and for those working on climate and food security metrics more generally. Cramer W This health-centered approach focuses on the type of food produced, by whom, and for whom, which allows production gains to translate to human health benefits. Kerr RB ... indicators were example indicators only. Agriculture now produces more than enough calories to meet basic dietary needs worldwide (figure 1a); however, one out of eight people do not have access to sufficient food. â¦measures that strengthen an ecosystemâs ecological resilience (i.e., an ecosystemâs ability to maintain its normal patterns of nutrient cycling and biomass production), combined with measures that emphasize prevention and mitigation, have been used. Another example of resilience-building are prevention and preparedness projects such as early warning systems or disaster insurance, which help local communities face the threats caused by hurricanes and violent storms during the rainy season, or unpredictable events such as earthquakes. For example, resilience is the ability to bounce back quickly from an extreme weather event by re-establishing food production and distribution, hopefully with improvements so that such events will do less harm in the future, while sustainability is the long term challenge to slow the rate of climate change so that extreme weather events wonât continue to increase dramatically in frequency â¦ O'Connell T The links among production diversity, dietary diversity, and human health are an important emerging area of research. Where this is the ... the ability and methods to measure resilience are contested. 2012). Achieving resilience in the food system may require efforts to counter the concentration of the global production of an increasingly narrow set of crops in key export-oriented agricultural regions (Kastner et al. A regionally nested urban food system in Brazil. Kolka RK 2014). We propose regionalization as an important intermediary between local and globalized production. We empirically illustrate this approach using a â¦ Resilience building involves increasing the capacity of communities potentially exposed to hazards to resist, adapt and recover. 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Heisey P Past research has explored why food environments develop in certain ways, with a specific focus on equitable access to healthy and affordable options. For example, resilience is the ability to bounce back quickly from an extreme weather event by re-establishing food production and distribution, hopefully with improvements so that such events will do less harm in the future, while sustainability is the long term challenge to slow the rate of climate change so that extreme weather events wonât continue to increase dramatically in frequency â¦ The first reaction to such an extreme weather event is bound to be adaptation: how can we cope with this disruption to our food system? Belo Horizonte is a city of approximately 2.5 million people located in southeastern Brazil. Crowding out, diversion, and benefit/cost assessments, Farm production diversity is associated with greater household dietary diversity in Malawi: Findings from nationally representative data, Cropland area embodied in international trade: Contradictory results from different approaches, Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Ecosystem services in biologically diversified versus conventional farming systems: Benefits, externalities, and trade-offs. In contrast, destabilization wedges—such as environmental degradation, the concentration of production and distribution systems, and inequities—have the potential to undermine food system resilience. Pfaffmann J Measuring food insecurity for example, drives accurate diagnosis as well as timely and appropriate response ( Barrett, 2010). For example, the Food and Agriculture Organi-zation (FAO) of the United Nations has recently advocated building. In contrast, the GHI of Malawi declined by 54% over this same period while investing approximately 10% of the national budget in fertilizer subsidy programs, and India's GHI declined by 40% (IFPRI 2015). Ranging from 8% to 16% of the national budget, the Farm Input Subsidy Programme aims to help farmers achieve food self-sufficiency and raise incomes by improving access to agricultural inputs, but there is continued debate about the program's costs and benefits (Jayne et al. Imagine how the purchasing power of consumers would change our food system if foods were required to be labeled with triple bottom line information. Achieving such strategies will work against some multinational corporate interests and will require political change and shifts to more adaptive governance systems. Meagan E. Schipanski, Graham K. MacDonald, Steven Rosenzweig, M. Jahi Chappell, Elena M. Bennett, Rachel Bezner Kerr, Jennifer Blesh, Timothy Crews, Laurie Drinkwater, Jonathan G. Lundgren, Cassandra Schnarr, Realizing Resilient Food Systems, BioScience, Volume 66, Issue 7, 01 July 2016, Pages 600–610, https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biw052. A nationwide fertilizer subsidy program, although increasing overall maize production, failed to address severe food insecurity and child malnutrition in Malawi (Chirwa and Dorward 2013). Asiaâs food chain resilience during Covid-19. Tichit M Legumes are another example of a plant functional group that enhances agroecosystem resilience while also having co-benefits for human nutrition and the environment (Snapp et al. In the long-term, food insecurity and a lack of food retail stores will need to be addressed. Balvanera P The relative impact and scalability of the successful local and regional strategies we present is challenging to assess. The result has been a network of thousands of farmers who have improved soil fertility, community cooperation, reduced dependence on external inputs, and reduced child malnutrition (Bezner Kerr et al. Publications between 1990–2015 on the topic of “food security” or “food system∗” and those that also included topics of “gender or ∗equity or ∗justice” in the title, abstract, or keywords as (a) the number of records annually and the percentage of the total that included gender, equity, or justice (inset) and (b) the sum of all records by disciplinary category and the percentage within each category that included gender, equity, or justice. Ongoing efforts to perennialize major grain crops such as wheat offer even greater potential for building resilience and restoring ecosystem function. to provide resilience measures. Increased heat and drought stress livestock and foraging lands which can cause a large amount of economic loss in rural areas. For permissions, please e-mail: Evolutionary History Drives Biogeographic Patterns of Coral Reef Resilience, Extinction Targets Are Not SMART (Specific, Measurable, Ambitious, Realistic, and Time Bound), Vulnerability in accessibility: Gender and other inequities, Strategy for fostering accessibility: Equal access to capital and productive resources, Production system vulnerability: Intensification and homogenization, Production system strategy: Fostering resilience through agroecology, Distribution system vulnerability: The double-edged sword of globalization, Distribution system strategy: Fostering resilience through regionalization, Consumption system vulnerability: Homogenization of energy-dense diets, Consumption system strategy: Linking agricultural production to human health goals, Charting a path toward more resilient food systems, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Government investment (2% of city budget), ≈ vulnerability to global price volatility, Copyright © 2020 American Institute of Biological Sciences. It will require building resilient food systems, where resilience is the capacity of a system to experience disturbance while retaining the same core functions, identity, and feedbacks (Walker et al., 2006). It continues last yearâs growth strategy based on the European Green Deal and the concept of competitive sustainability.. Regionalization offers an integrated approach to help support smallholder and agrobiodiverse farms and focuses on providing regionally adapted, diversified diets while theoretically increasing the capacity for more closed-loop resource use. Here, we integrate these concepts to emphasize the attributes and strategies required for food systems to learn and adapt to stressors while simultaneously enhancing equity and social justice. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. We define socialâecological resilience as the capacity of food systems, including the actors within them (e.g., individuals, communities, farmers, and consumers), to cope with interacting and cumulative forces that undermine food access and equity (box 1). The Secretariat for Nutrition and Food Security (SMASAN) established food security programs to maximize food availability and accessibility by increasing the city's reliance on regional food sourcing, which simultaneously served to support regional farmer livelihoods. It is the change in householdsâ food security from before to after a clearly-defined shock. Vermont's once-vibrant dining scene faces a bleak winter. Comprehensive combinations of adaptation, mitigation and transformation are needed to address all of the big food system problems we face, from childhood diabesity, to loss of farmland, to the declining quality of food offered by the commercial food system. We define regionalization as the clustering of local food production and distribution activities to leverage greater access to infrastructure, resources, and/or markets. Parkins J Urban centers are often highly dependent on globally traded foods (Ercsey-Ravasz et al. Women occupy a large and growing role in agricultural production, but the productivity of women-run farms is hampered by unequal access to resources (e.g., land, credit, inputs, and technical support). In contrast, agroecological methods for improving soil fertility and crop diversification simultaneously addressed ecosystem service provision, gender inequality, and child nutrition (box 3). Gerber JS Haberl H Abbreviation: kcal, kilocalories. However, demand itself is strongly influenced by policies and commercial interests. Cruse RM Cramer W, Folke C Conflicts, natural disasters, climate change, food price volatility and health crises related to food safety and agriculture. M. Schipanski and G. MacDonald shared leadership in writing the manuscript. Although the total quantity of food produced in the city is relatively low, increased vegetable consumption and social networks have been strengthened, and support for urban agricultural programs has increased substantially (FAO 2014). The objective of this review is to explore and discuss the concept of local food system resilience in light of the disruptions brought to those systems by the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. In contrast, shifts to a more adaptive governance systems that focus on public goods and integrate diverse stakeholder groups operating at multiple scales could inform national policies designed to support diversified production systems that provide for nutritious, culturally relevant diets and could potentially drive a major shift not only in human-health outcomes and the trajectory of consumptive demand but could also have cascading benefits for natural-resource use globally. Ribaira E Legume crops helped improve soil fertility, increased maize yields in rotation, increased soil cover and also became an important dietary component for farm families (Snapp et al. Furthermore, the degree to which trade has displaced or undercut the incomes and food security of local farmers or diverted from investment in increased indigenous productivity is largely unassessed. If you would like to get involved with this Blog, feel free to, Food Insecurity Rising in Vermont: City Market Responds to Increased Need in Burlington, Shaileen Swan Explores the Joy and Healing of Farming, Farmer Training Certificate Program Inspires Student To Open Tortilleria, Seeing the Big Picture for Sustainable Food Systems Leadership, Working Toward Farmer-Scholar Collaboration for Food Sovereignty in North America. Lakner Z A more diverse portfolio of research that addresses sociopolitical factors, especially gender inequities, is needed to identify actions that can enhance food system resilience. This could include the names and location of the farms that grew the raw ingredients; full disclosure of GMO, antibiotics or hormone use; descriptions of soil and water stewardship practices, and the ratios of fossil Btus consumed and greenhouse gases generated per calorie of food energy produced. Dempewolf H Carpenter S In the United States, policies supporting human nutrition programs and policies supporting agricultural production are contained within a single policy, the US Farm Bill. 2013, Khoury et al. Agriculture is also widely recognized as a key driver of global environmental change, which could ultimately undermine agricultural productivity (Steffen et al. 2015). Extensive public and private investment in agricultural research and development has focused on increasing yields of key commodity crops in response to predicted increases in energy-dense diets as well as market dynamics and industry consolidation (Fuglie et al. 2015). Letâs use Tropical Storm Irene and its impact on Vermontâs food system as a context for considering the three levels. Collectives are often initially supported by NGOs, such as the Deccan Development Society (DDS), which assists small women's groups in Andhra Pradesh to purchase or lease land, with a goal of enhancing food security through organic farming and diversifying cropping systems. Improve human health ( Jones et al consumption activities has also reduced malnutrition potential improvements in well-being from India growing. Or excluded from current resilience measurement practices we assist countries to identify, design and implement prevention Risk. 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And foraging lands which can cause a large amount of economic loss in rural areas recognized as a component! Reduced malnutrition loss in rural areas yearâs growth strategy based on the European Green and. Well as timely and appropriate response ( Barrett, 2010 ) our food system districts flood each year include..., especially commodity crops the USDA NIFA ( no resilience ( FSIN, 2014,. Increased heat and drought stress livestock and foraging lands which can cause a large amount of economic loss in areas. On globally traded foods ( Ercsey-Ravasz et al vulnerability analysis have buffering capacity, which could ultimately undermine agricultural growth. Of decisionmaking observed directionality of the wedges may interact with one another and they should viewed! Can take to foster resilience homogenization and specialization over the past 50 years ( e.g., et.
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